To What Extent Did the Russian Economy Improve in the Period 1894-1942

1894; industry and agriculture
??? Less economic growth compared to G, B, USA in 19th cent
??? Less urban workers
??? Iron,textile,smelting,flaxen goods were main industry that were supplementary to agriculture
??? Less transport system= couldn??™t have an industrial expansion
??? Ineffective banking system= less capital+ entrepreneurialism
??? Inefficient pattern of agriculture- north couldn??™t grow crops- restricted to black earth region fertile
??? 80% peasants- not enough fertile land to go around
??? Peasants thought land was too expensive- borrow from government loans- large mortgages that took generations to pay
Great spurt
??? 1890??™s industry grew rapidly- especially coal in Ukraine and Oil in Caucasus
??? Witte- Minister of Finance: 1892-1903
??? State capitalism
??? European countries saw R as inferior- had to be seen as equal- large loans from abroad
??? High tariffs to import- help with balance of payments
??? Russian currency under gold standard
??? Trans Siberian railway- connected to remote areas where migration was needed into cities= more investments from abroad because impressed
??? GDP growth 96.8% from 1898-1913
??? Made R dependent on foreign loans
??? Neglected light engineering areas e.g. machine tool production- help modernise manufacturing
??? Neglected agricultural needs
??? Great spurt had also been down to a world wide boom- recession= less demand for goods
??? Unemployment and less GDP per capita
How accurate is it to describe the constutional and land reforms of the years 1906-14 in Russia as significant
Land reforms
??? Outstanding repayments cancelled- de-revolutionaising the peasants
??? Land bank- replace inefficient strip system with fence fields like west-voluntary resettlement of peasants to repopulate remote areas e.g. Siberia to turn them into food growing areas
??? Conservatism- resitsted- mir was more confortable to stay- offered security
??? Increased taxes than in 1890??™s = more production BUT minority
??? Stolypin had said this need 20 years to work but assassinated in 1911 so didn??™t work for that long- could have worked
??? 10% consolidated into farms-failure
Constitutional reforms
??? Duma- elected legislative assembly was in place for the first time
??? Committee system was developed as a means of achieving reform
??? 1st & 2nd Dumas short lived= useless
??? 3rd duma more cooperative- set up schools for children of poor & national insurance for industrial workers
??? 4th duma- state welfare
??? Tsarist gov prevented from doing more- fundamental laws limited powers of duma
How far do you agree that it was misjudgements by Nicholas II after 1911 caused the collapse of stardom in 1917
Nicholas??™s mistakes
??? Failure to see need for reform and concessions
??? Poor choice of gov ministers after Stolypin??™s death in 1914
??? Appointment of Rasputin- bad reputation lowered his prestige- along with his wife ???the German woman???- incompetent
??? Duma recalled in august 1915 BUT Tsar not willing to cooperate- declines to work with patriotic non-gov organisations e.g. Semgor- united war effort- rejects working with progressive bloc
??? Personal commander in chief of Russian army in 1915- responsible for bad
Strains of the war
??? Inflation- gold standard abandoned ??“ earnings doubled but food & fuel quadrupled
??? Food supplies- requisition, transport & distruptions- broke down
??? Army fought well BUT lacked supplies- poor in A&E- bad communications between gov & suppliers- obliged to stop fighting because of lack of boots & ammunition
??? Morale decreased as increased casualties and less supplies at home
How far do you agree that the main reason for the fall of the provisional gov was the skill and determination of Lenin in 1917
Weakness of the P.G
??? Dual authority- not elected body- lacked of legitimate authority- unsure = more power to soviets- they were in charge of army orders BUT did not include many Bolsheviks
??? Strain of war- had to fight to get war credit from abroad- Tsardom left R bankrupt- unpopular- caused splits- prevented resources being spent on other needs- not genuinely committed to land reform- Bolsheviks seized opportunity ??? peace, bread & Land???
??? Kerensky became war minister- hope that he would shift to left to ease relation with soviet- opposite isolated ??“ collation with Kadets so compromising with Bourgeosie
??? Kerensky offensive- R forces were no match for Germans= mutinies or dissertations
??? Kornilove affair ??“ weakened gov- let B out of prison to fight for gov
??? Failure to cope with July days= weak
??? April thesis ???Peace, bread and land??? increased popularity
??? Returned to Petrograd= increased sense of use for Bolsheviks
??? Small party BUT dedicated
??? Committed Bolsheviks to overthrow P.G.
??? Skill in attracting peasants support ??“ P.G. had not helped them in getting land reform- adapted policy to help 80% of peasant population
??? Organised oct rising
??? Used his influence to become a troika of the MRC- disposal of the only effective military force- acted on authority of soviet- could over throw
How successfully did the N.E.P deal with the problems it was designed to solve in the period 1921-4
Economic problem in 1921
??? War communism- decreased industrial production and agriculture- famine- peasants refused to produce
??? Kronsradt rising
??? Economic failure of war communism
Aims & features
??? Mixed economy & retreat from principle state of control
??? Ended grain requisitioning
??? Peasants were allowed to trade for profit
??? Markets & money restored
??? Grain increased from 37.6 to 51.4 mil tonnes- everyone was fed
??? Factory output ??“ 2004 to 4660 mil roubles
??? Wages increased from 10.2 to 20.8 roubles- increased living standards
??? State owned 15% of Russian economy compared to 10% of cooperartes
??? State enterprise had 85% of work form
??? Industry failed to expand as fast as agriculture
??? Unemployment increased in urban area

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